Thuidium delicatulum – Moss
The Thuidium delicatulum was found on the side of a fallen down log in a moist, shaded area. Upon closer observation, the branches are thrice pinnate making it appear fern-like. The leaves are coarsely unipapillose and ecostate leaves that are pinnately compound with stems that have filamentous paraphyllia. The Thuidium delicatulum is pleurocarp.
Tortula porter – Moss
The Tortula porteri was found on the side of an old brick building near a riverbank. Upon closer observation, the leaves are oblong-lanceolate/ovate lanceolate and the tip is acute. The Tortula Porteri is acrocrap. With a midrib that extends nearly to the tip.
Dryopteris carthusiana – Fern
The Spinulose woodfern is fairly divided monomorphic fronds that have a reniform indusium type. It has unequal-sided lowermost pinnae and the sub-leaflets are larger on one side that on the other.
Polystichum acrostichoides – Fern
The Christmas fern is fully pinnate frond dissection and is a smaller fern. It is dimorphic, with fertile, that have sub-leaflets near the end and sterile fronds. Underneath, it produces many confluent sori that are covered by peltate indusium.
Deer – Threat to Trees
Deer like rubbing their antlers against the trunk of small trees to remove the velvet during breeding season. They also rub their antlers against the bark to smooth out their growing antlers. This wrecks the trees, by removing its cambium, which helps the nutrients move throughout the tree. To stop deer from rubbing their antlers against the tree, you can physically block off the tree with a tree guard or other things such as a fence or chicken wire.
Invasive Species – Threat to Trees
Invasive species spread quickly and prevent native plant/tree growth and creates monocultures. Invasive plants cause biological pollution because they reduce the plant diversity in a location that should have a variety of trees, herbs and shrubs. A few ways to help prevent/stop the spread is by not picking flowers/weeds and take them home, don’t use seed feed for animals unless it is certified weed free, and not camping/driving in weed infested areas.
Ligustrum vulgare – Shrub
The Common Privet has opposite pairs, sub-shiny narrow oval leaves that are medium in size. Attached are white cone shaped flowers and once bloomed, sprout blackberries. It is stout and multibranched. Leaves are typically a glossy/waxy dark green color This Shrub is native to Europe, Asian and Africa. It was welcomed to America by cultivation and is now found in the wild due to its invasive characteristics. The berries are poisonous, however often eaten by thrushes. In Chine, they use the shrub as a medical herb to treat fever, bad eyesight, insomnia, dizziness, and immune functions in cancer patients.
Ilex verticillate – Shrub
The Winterberry shrub grows in an upright round shape and has large thickets. The leaves are dark green in color and are elliptical shape typically about 2 inches long. It has plain greenish-white flowers that bloom in the spring. This shrub is native to Canada and eastern United States and is a dioecious plant. Native Americans used this plant as medicine to heal fevers and used the bark to heal cuts and bruises.